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句式叠加及分解有法可依——高中学法指导
2008-10-09
 

南开中学/段胜利

  高中英语覆盖了全部的英语句式结构,这其中有简单句、并列句、复合句等结构句式,也有倒装句、强调句和省略句等特殊句式。在平时的阅读和练习时,我们读到、练到了许多相对比较容易辨别的“单式”结构,如:

  The most important idea behind the kind of party planning described here is that it brings parents and children closer together.

  这是一个名词从句,其语句结构是:

  The…idea… is that it brings parents

  主语 系动词

  and children…together

  名词从句做表语

  再如:

  Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, , of course , made the others envy him.

  A. who

  B. that

  C. what

  D. which

  答案为D

  which引导非限定定语从句,代指前面说的事情。

  但我们还读到和练到了将多种句式叠加在一起的很多句子,这些句子出现了较难辨别的“复式”结构,同学们会感到句子很复杂,有时候不知道句子在说什么。由于不能很快捕捉出句子结构信息,导致在阅读理解和答题时不知所措,如:

  Decision thinking is not unlike poker — it often matters not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think.

  不到30个词的一个句子,涵盖了前面的一个简单句和后面的复合句(名词从句做宾语),而且是句子套从句,从句里又套从句。

  又如:

  The place ___ the bridge is supposed to be built should be____the cross-river traffic is the heaviest.

  A. which;where

  B. at which;which

  C. at which;where

  D. which;in which

  答案为C

  整个句子结构为:

  The place (+定语从句)should be+名词从句。

  第一个空为at which引导定语从句,修饰the place,第二个空为where引导名词从句做表语。

  在阅读和单项选择中,快速辨别句子结构,分解出叠加进去的不同的句式,要首先具备最基础的简单句和句子成分的知识;在此基础上,将复合句结构对应到句子中,其中定语从句是修饰语,相当于形容词;名词从句是句子成分,相当于某一个名词做成分;状语从句主要是要学会辨别从属连词。对于特殊句式,如倒装句、强调句和省略句等,要熟悉其结构和判断方法。如果做到上面的要求,那么,分解复杂句也就易如反掌了。

  下面分析几个典型的题目,从中可以掌握分解复杂句子的方法。

  例1.Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer ______ it was 20 years ago, _____ it was so poorly equipped.

  A. what; when

  B. that; which

  C. what; which

  D. which; that

  答案为A

  第一个空为what连接的名词从句做表语,“学校再也不是二十年前的样子了”;第二个空为when引导非限定定语从句,指代“二十年前”。

  例2.I just wonder ____ that makes him so excited.

  A. why it does

  B. what he does

  C. how it is

  D. what it is

  答案为D

  看到题干和题项中的“it is…that…”,可以在试选择时,先考虑本句是否叠加了强调句结构。去掉“it is…that…”后,题目就变成了:

  I just wonder ____ makes him so excited.

  这样就一目了然看到了应当选择“what”,引导名词从句做宾语。

  例3.It was only on the way back home that _____ he was cheated by the girl.

  A.he realized

  B.did he realize

  C.he was realizing

  D.realized he

  答案为A

  题干中出现的“it is…that…”,说明有一个强调句;如果不是叠加在强调句中,以only on the way back home置于句首,应当使用倒装结构,即:

  Only on the way back home did he realize he was cheated by the girl.

  但由于“did he realize he was cheated by the girl.”这部分在强调句that之后,属于从句的位置,因此,不能使用疑问语序,故改为陈述结构,选择A.

  例4.——Where did you get to know her?

  ——It was on the farm _________ we worked.

  A.that

  B.there

  C.which

  D.where

  答案为D

  本题极易误选为A.本题中it不是强调结构没有任何意义的“it”,而是代指地点的“it”,它有含义。“你在哪里认识她的?”“是在(我们工作的)农场。”where为关系副词引导定语从句,修饰farm.

  高考试题常常采用强调句和倒装以及复合句的句式叠加来设空置项,考查同学们的句式结构能力,在平时的训练中,要加强语句特别是复杂句式的辨别和分析,从而在考试时回答此类问题能够得心应手。

  下面的5个题目供同学们做简单的训练。

  1.David said that it was because of his strong interest in literature _____ he chose the course.

  A. that

  B. what

  C. why

  D. how

  2.It was not until she got home _______ Jennifer realized she had lost her keys.

  A. when

  B. that

  C. where

  D. before

  3.It is not who is right but what is right ______ is of importance.

  A. which

  B. it

  C. that

  D. this

  4.It is what you do rather than what you say ____ matters.

  A. that

  B. what

  C. which

  D. this

  5._____ electricity plays such an important part in our daily life?

  A.why is it

  B.why is it that

  C.why does it

  D.why was it

  参考答案

  1.A 2.B 3.C 4.A 5.B

  不到30个词的一个句子,涵盖了前面的一个简单句和后面的复合句(名词从句做宾语),而且是句子套从句,从句里又套从句。

  又如:

  The place ___ the bridge is supposed to be built should be____the cross-river traffic is the heaviest.

  A. which;where

  B. at which;which

  C. at which;where

  D. which;in which

  答案为C

  整个句子结构为:

  The place (+定语从句)should be+名词从句。

  第一个空为at which引导定语从句,修饰the place,第二个空为where引导名词从句做表语。

  在阅读和单项选择中,快速辨别句子结构,分解出叠加进去的不同的句式,要首先具备最基础的简单句和句子成分的知识;在此基础上,将复合句结构对应到句子中,其中定语从句是修饰语,相当于形容词;名词从句是句子成分,相当于某一个名词做成分;状语从句主要是要学会辨别从属连词。对于特殊句式,如倒装句、强调句和省略句等,要熟悉其结构和判断方法。如果做到上面的要求,那么,分解复杂句也就易如反掌了。

  下面分析几个典型的题目,从中可以掌握分解复杂句子的方法。

  例1.Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer ______ it was 20 years ago, _____ it was so poorly equipped.

  A. what;when

  B. that;which

  C. what;which

  D. which;that

  答案为A

  第一个空为what连接的名词从句做表语,“学校再也不是二十年前的样子了”;第二个空为when引导非限定定语从句,指代“二十年前”。

  例2.I just wonder ____ that makes him so excited.

  A. why it does

  B. what he does

  C. how it is

  D. what it is

  答案为D

  看到题干和题项中的“it is…that…”,可以在试选择时,先考虑本句是否叠加了强调句结构。去掉“it is…that…”后,题目就变成了:

  I just wonder ____ makes him so excited.

  这样就一目了然看到了应当选择“what”,引导名词从句做宾语。

  例3.It was only on the way back home that _____ he was cheated by the girl.

  A.he realized

  B.did he realize

  C.he was realizing

  D.realized he

  答案为A

  题干中出现的“it is…that…”,说明有一个强调句;如果不是叠加在强调句中,以only on the way back home置于句首,应当使用倒装结构,即:

  Only on the way back home did he realize he was cheated by the girl.

  但由于“did he realize he was cheated by the girl.”这部分在强调句that之后,属于从句的位置,因此,不能使用疑问语序,故改为陈述结构,选择A.

  例4.——Where did you get to know her?

  ——It was on the farm _________ we worked.

  A.that

  B.there

  C.which

  D.where

  答案为D

  本题极易误选为A.本题中it不是强调结构没有任何意义的“it”,而是代指地点的“it”,它有含义。“你在哪里认识她的?”“是在(我们工作的)农场。”where为关系副词引导定语从句,修饰farm.

  高考试题常常采用强调句和倒装以及复合句的句式叠加来设空置项,考查同学们的句式结构能力,在平时的训练中,要加强语句特别是复杂句式的辨别和分析,从而在考试时回答此类问题能够得心应手。

  下面的5个题目供同学们做简单的训练。

  1.David said that it was because of his strong interest in literature _____ he chose the course.

  A. that

  B. what

  C. why

  D. how

  2.It was not until she got home _______ Jennifer realized she had lost her keys.

  A. when

  B. that

  C. where

  D. before

  3.It is not who is right but what is right ______ is of importance.

  A. which

  B. it

  C. that

  D. this

  4.It is what you do rather than what you say ____ matters.

  A. that

  B. what

  C. which

  D. this

  5._____ electricity plays such an important part in our daily life?

  A.why is it

  B.why is it that

  C.why does it

  D.why was it

  参考答案

  1.A 2.B 3.C 4.A 5.B

 
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