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复合句式点破重难点知识——高中学法指导
2008-10-09
 

南开中学/段胜利

  许多同学在学习复合句和特殊句式时,都会为“that”和“what”的选择而头疼, 感觉这两个连接性词语辨别起来“有点乱”。你也不妨先做一做下面几个题,看看你能否把他们分清:

  1.A modern city has been set up in ____ was a wasteland ten years ago.

  A. what

  B. which

  C. that

  D. where

  2.Because of my poor memory, all ____ you told me has been forgotten.

  A. that

  B. which

  C. what

  D. as

  3.With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased ____ he was a man of action.

  A. which

  B. that

  C. what

  D. whether

  4.It is what you do rather than what you say _______ matters.

  A. that

  B. what

  C. which

  D. this

  5.His plan was such a good one _________ we all agreed to accept it.

  A. so

  B. and

  C. that

  D. as

  上面5个题中的前四个题,在选项中都同时出现了what和that,如何选择呢?

  第1题为答案A.考查名词从句连接代词what的运用。“十年前是一片荒地的地方建起了一座现代化的城市”。作介词in的宾语不能用that,因为名词从句中that不做任何成分;连接代词what引导一个宾语从句,“是一个什么样的地方”;

  第2题为答案A.考查定词从句关系代词that的运用,“因为记忆不好,你告诉我的,我都给忘了”。句中先行词为“all”,that为关系代词,意指all,在从句中做宾语;

  第3题答案为B.考查名词从句从属连词that的运用。“…他很得意自己是个干事的人。”陈述了一个事实,故选择从属连词that

  第4题为答案A.考查强调句结构中的that.“It is (was)+ 所强调的成分+ that (who)+ 其他成分。”

  第5题为答案C.考查结果状语从句中的从属连词that.“他的计划非常好,我们都同意接受。”

  从上面的分析中,我们不难看出,“that”一词非常活跃,在定语从句、名词从句、状语从句和强调句中都有使用;而命题设项时,“what”又常常用来作为干扰,因此,要想辨清“that” 和“what”这两个词,突破复合句式的这个难点,就要注意:

  一、定语从句的关系代词中没有what,因此要牢记what不会引导定语从句。

  例如:

  1.The thought of going back home was kept him happy while he was working abroad.

  A.that

  B.all that

  C.all what

  D.which

  答案为B.这里的all是先行词,而that是关系代词,在从句中做主语。许多同学将此题误选成了C.需要注意的是,C选项前面要是去掉all,则变成了what引导的名词从句,则就是对的了。

  2.You can only be sure of_____ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something ___ you might get in the future. [2007 安徽卷]

  A. that; what

  B. what; /

  C. which; that

  D. /; that

  答案为B.前一个空为名词从句连接代词what,(从句做of的宾语,what又为get的宾语),后一个空为定语从句(先行词为something,关系代词做get的宾语,关系代词省略)。

  二、名词从句中同时存在that和what这两个连接性词语,可以从其语法地位和意思上来辨别。

  that 引导名词性从句时,没有任何含义和语法作用,只是提示引导了名词从句;而what引导名词性从句时,在主从句中都要充当一定的句子成分,what的意思是“什么…”

  例如:

  1.The mountain is no longer ____ it used to be.

  A. which

  B. that

  C. what

  D. as

  答案C .“山不是以前那个样子了”。以前“什么样”,对应了what.

  2.There is much chance ____ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race.

  A. that

  B. which

  C. until

  D. if

  答案A.that引导的名词从句陈述事实,说的即是前面的chance,为同位语从句。

  三、定语从句与同位语从句中that的区别,主要看that在从句中有没有语法作用。

  定语从句中的关系代词that在句中做宾语或主语,有时可以与 which 互换。同位语从句中的连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不担当任何句子成分;而如果句子是同位语从句,就应用连词that而不能用which.同位语从句一般放在表具体含义的名词如:fact、suggestion、truth、possibility、idea等后面,解释名词的含义或内容,而定语从句只是对先行词的限定和修饰。

  例如:

  The football star Henry expressed the hope that he would come to visit China again in 2008.

  同位语从句,从句就是hope的内容;

  The hope the football star Henry expressed is that he would come to visit China again in 2008.

  定语从句,从句修饰hope,是“表达的”愿望。

  再如:

  1.…It‘s thirty years since we last met.

  …But I still remember the story, believe it or not, ____ we got lost on a rainy night.

  A. which

  B. that

  C. what

  D. when

  答案为B.同位语从句,解释story.

  2.I still remember the big names in the stories ______ my mother told me when I was young.

  A. when

  B. that

  C. what

  D. where

  答案为B.定语从句,意指stories,做told的宾语。

 
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