请输入手机号: 密码: 验证码: 点击刷新验证码 注册 找回密码 家长登录
 学习公社  疯狂学英语 | 习题训练营 | 各科知识点 | 高考 | 中考  学机平台  知识点答题 | 智力抢答 | 娱乐快车 | 资讯空间
 家长学堂  家长必读 | 专家支招 | 常见问题 | 教育新政 | 健康宝典  互动学习
 OK题库 | 学习诊断
语文 | 数学 | 英语 | 物理 | 化学 | 政治 | 历史 | 地理 | 生物
您的位置: 首页 - 学习公社 - 各科知识点 - 英语
动词不定式、动词ing分词和ed分词的区别与联系
 2008-10-13   

动词不定式、动词ing分词和ed分词的区别与联系

一、动词不定式与-ING分词的区别

1. 作宾语时,-ING分词表示抽象的、一般性或习惯性的和连续性的动作,而不定式则表示某次具体动作,特别是将来的动作
I like playing football. I would like to play football this afternoon.

1) The school cannot tolerate on exams.
[A] cheating [B] to cheat [C] be cheated [D] being cheated
2) News of success keeps in.
[A] pouring [B] to pour [C] poured [D] to be pouring
3) Long [A] before the dawn [B] of recorded [C] history, humans celebrated to harvest [D] their crops.
2. 作定语时,-ING表示正在进行的动作,用-ING的完成时表示动作的完成;不定式表示未来发生
4) We were overjoyed at the news of China another man-made satellite.
[A] having launched [B] to have launched [C] to launch [D] launched
5) The applicants interviewing [A] are required to [B] bring all the necessary papers [C] two days later [D] .
6) Sorghum(高梁) leaves [A] occasionally contain [B] enough hydrocyanic acid killing [C] livestock(牲畜) [D] .
3. 当谓语动词是进行时的时候,用不定式而不用-ING分词作宾语


It's beginning to snow you.  It starts raining. 
I'm considering how to go(where to go, what to do). I considered emplying Mr.Wang but
decided that Mr.Chen was more suited
to the job.

 

4. 在remember,forget等词后,如果跟-ING分词,表示-ING分词的动作发生在主要谓语之前;如果跟不定式则表示不定式的动作发生在主要谓语动作之后


I remember telling her that last night. (“告
诉”发生在“记得”之前) He remembered to tell her that when she
came back. (“记得”发生在“告诉”之前)
I'm sorry I forgot to give you the message. (主
语动词表示的动作“忘记”发生在不定式表
示的动作“给带口信”之前) Why! I have such a bad memory. I forgot
giving the message last night. (-ING分词
表示的动作“给带口信”发生在谓语动词表
示的动作“忘记”之前)

 

5. stop, go on和leave off之后跟接动词不定式和-ING分词所表达的意义有所不同

They stopped (talking) to work. [停下(其他动作)来工作]
They stopped working. [停下工作(来干其他动作)]

Workers went on discussing the problem. [工人继续讨论这一问题]
Workers went on to discuss the problem.[工人们停下来其他事,继续讨论这一问题]

He left off writing.[他停下写作(去干其他事)]
He left off to write.[他停下(其他事)来写作]

6. … used to后跟不定式和-ING分词,后跟不定式有两种情况:一种是used to是固定用法表示“过去经常干……”;另外一种情况是use的被动词态“be used”后跟不定式;后跟-ING分词的情况有一种,那就是当used to中的used是形容词时,to后跟名词或-ING分词
7) When he was in the plastic plant, he together with the workers.
[A] has worked [B] had worked [C] had been worked [D] used to work
8) You will soon this climate and then the changes in temperature will not affect you.
[A] get used to
[B] get to
[C] get over
[D] get on with
9) Mr. Anderson used to jogging [A] in the crisp morning [B] air during [C] the winter months [D] , but now he has stopped.
7. 一般情况下,for后边跟接there to be,而of后边则跟接there being
10) It is fairly common in Africa for there an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others who join in by clapping, singing, or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound.
[A] to be [B] being [C] to have been [D] having been

8. be+形容词后面要跟动词不定式作状语,而不用-ING
It is very difficult to manage the company.

二、-ING分词与-ED分词的区别
虽然在语法功能上,-ED分词在句子中所能承担的成分基本与-ING分词相同,但在意义上两者有差别:-ING分词表示主动的意义,而-ED分词则表示被动的意义;-ING分词表示一般性的或正在进行的动作,而-ED分词则表示已经完成和被动的动作。在表现形式上,-ING分词有“一般式”和“完成式”与“主动式”和“被动式”之分;而-ED分词只有一种形式。下边我们分析-ING分词与-ED分词在语法功用上的区别。
1. 作表语时,-ING分词表示主语所具有的特征而-ED分词表示主语所处的状态


The book is quite interesting. I am insteredted in the book very much.
The play is more exciting than any I have
ever seen. That piece of land lay deserted.

 

2. 作状语时-ING分词表示主语正在进行的另一动作而-ED分词则表示主语发生动作的背景或情况 11) In his movies,W. C. Fields was always at war with the world, .
[A] battling both people and objects
[B] both people and objects were battled
[C] he was battling both people and objects
[D] both people and objects that were battled
13) Having been served lunch, .
[A] the problem was discussed by the members of the committee
[B] the committee members discussed the problem
[C] it was discussed by the committee members the problem
[D] a discussion of the problem was made by the members of the committee
12) for her anthropological research,Margaret Mead also was involved with the World Federation for Mental Health.
[A] She is noted primarily
[B] Noted primarily
[C] Primarily is noted
[D] She primarily noted
14) Considered one of the leading poets in America today, .
[A] a number of books and plays have also been written by Sonia Sanchez
[B] Sonia Sanchez has also written a number of books and plays
[C] a number of Sonia Sanchez’s books and plays have been written
[D] there have been a number of books and plays written by Sonia Sanchez
3. ①作定语时,-ING分词表示正在进行的动作,而-ED分词表示动作发生在谓语动词之前;②-ING分词表示它所修饰的词经常或当时的状态,而-ED分词则没有时间性;③-ING分词表示主动,而-ED分词表示被动
15) The boiled [A] point of any liquid [B] is determined [C] by the pressure [D] of the surrounding gases.
16) High-grade [A] written [B] paper is frequently [C] obtained [D] from cotton rags.
17) Scientists [A] still cannot find [B] any convinced [C] link between intelligence [D] and the quantity or quality of brain cells.
4. 但少数几个动词的-ED分词,有两种形式而且在意义上有差别,如:bear的-ED分词有born和borne之分,前者只用于“出生”的意义,而后者用于“负担”,“负荷”,“承担”和“传送”之意
I was born in 1966.
His borne responsibility to the whole workers of the factory is really great.
再如:hang的-ED分词也有两种,一是hung,另一形式是hanged, 前者表示“悬挂”,后者表示“吊死,绞死”。strike的-ED分词也有两种:struck和striken, 前者有“打击”“冲击”“感动”等义,而striken只用作形容词,表示“受折磨”之意。
来自及物动词的-ED分词所表示的是被动意义;来自不及物动词的-ED分词则可表示主动和完成的意义:fallen leaves (落叶),a full-blown rose (盛开的玫瑰), escaped prinsoners(逃犯), the exploded bomb, her deceased husband, the retired workers, the vanished jewels, the newly arrived visitors, the returned students, the risen sun.

三、例题解析
1) A为正确答案。(一般性的动作。)
2) A为正确答案。(连续的动作。)
3) D错。 改为harvesting(抽象的动作)。
4) A为正确答案。(已完成的动作。)
5) C错。 改为to be interviewed(将要发生的动作)。
6) C错。改为to kill(不定或未来动作)。
7) D为正确答案。(过去经常或总是干……)
8) A为正确答案。(习惯于……used是形容词)
9) A错。改为jog。(表示过去经常或总是干……)
10) A为正确答案。
11) A为正确答案。
12) B为正确答案。本句是由-ED分词“noted”引导的-ED结构,在句中说明主句谓语的背景。
13) B为正确答案。
14) B为正确答案。-ED分词“considered”的逻辑主语应为人,除B外的其他选项都无法和空白前-ED结构在逻辑主语上一致。
15) A错。改为boiling。-ED分词含有完成和被动的意思,-ING分词则表示主动、进行,也可用作前置定语表示性状、用途。如:“boiling water(water which is boiling.)”意思是“开水”,意即“正在开着的水”,而“boiled water(water which has been boiled.)”虽也可译为“开水”,但表示“已开过了的水(现在可能凉了)。”本句A处应改为boiling,“boiling point”意思是“沸点”。
16) B错。改用“writing”,“writing paper”意为“写字的纸,信纸”,-ING分词“writing”表用途。与此类似的还有“swimming pool”(游泳池) ,“sleeping car”(卧铺) 。“written”含有完成和被动意味,不合上下文。
17) C错。改为“convincing”。“令人信服的联系”应为“convincing link”,“convincing”含有主动的意味,即“联系”(link)本身具有这种性质,而“convinced”则含有完成或被动的含义, 修饰有生命的名词 。试比较:a surprising man (使人惊讶的人) ,a surprised man (被惊吓了的人) 。

 
OK问答
 【已解决】 
 【待解决】 
 
公司介绍| 联系我们 |
Copyright @ok.com.cn Corporation. All rights reserved. 版权所有
本网所有资讯内容、广告信息,未经书面同意,不得转载。