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语法知识点总结
 2008-10-13   

(一)一般将来时
   一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或者存在的状态。通常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next year, next month, next week, in 100 years 等。
    be going to do (动词原形)结构:表示打算、准备做的事情或者肯定要发生的事情。如:It is going to rain.
    will do 结构表示将来的用法:
  1. 表示预见
    Do you think it will rain?
    You will feel better after a good rest.
  2. 表示意图
    I will borrow a book from our school library tomorrow.
    What will she do tomorrow?
基本构成如下:
一般疑问句构成:
    1will + 主语 + do ?  Will Sarah come to visit me next Sunday?
    2there be 结构的一般疑问句:Will there + be ?
    Will there be fewer trees?  Yes, there will. / No, there won’t
    否定句构成:will + not won’t+ do
    Sarah won’t come to visit me next Sunday.
    特殊疑问句构成:
    特殊疑问词 + will + 主语+…?What will Sarah do next Sunday?
  根据例句,用 will 改写下列各句
    例:I don’t feel well today. be better tomorrow
            I’ll be better tomorrow.
  1. Gina has six classes today. have a lot of homework tonight
      _____________________________
  2. I’m tired now. sleep later
      _____________________________
  3. My parents need a new car. buy one soon
      _____________________________
  4. We can’t leave right now. leave a little later
      _____________________________
  5. The weather is awful today. be better tomorrow
      _____________________________
答案:
 1. She’ll have a lot of homework tonight.
  2. I’ll sleep later.
  3. They’ll buy one soon.
  4. We’ll leave a little later.
  5. Maybe it’ll be better tomorrow.
 
(二)should 的用法:
    should 用来提出建议和忠告,后边加动词原形,否定句直接在 should 后边加 not.   例如:
  I think you should eat less junk food.
    我认为你应该少吃垃圾食品。
    She drives a lot and she seldom walks. So I think she should walk a lot.
    她经常开车,很少走路。所以我认为她应该多走路。
    Students shouldn’t spend too much time playing computer games.
    学生们不应当花太多的时间玩计算机游戏。
    学习向别人提建议的几种句式:
    1I think you should
    2Well, you could
    3Maybe you should
    4Why don’t you ?
    5What about doing sth.?
    6You’d better do sth.
    should shouldn’t 填空
  1. I can’t sleep the night before exams.
      You ______ take a warm shower before you go to bed.
  2. Good friends ______ argue each other.
  3. There is little milk in the glass. We _______ buy some.
  4. They didn’t invite you? Maybe you ______ be friendlier.
  5. I am a little bit overweight. So I think I _______ do exercises every day.
 
答案:1. should     2. shouldn’t    3. should 4. should 5. should
 
(三)过去进行时
    过去进行时表示过去某一点时间正在进行的动作或者过去某一段时间内一直进行的动作。
  1. 构成
    was / were + doing,例如:
    I was watching TV at 9 o’clock last night.
    at 9 o’clock last night 是时间点
    They were playing football all afternoon.
    all afternoon 是时间段
  2. 过去进行时的标志词
    at 8 o’clock last night, this time yesterday等。例如:
    I was having lunch at home this time yesterday.
    昨天的这个时候我正在吃午饭。
    At that time she was writing a book.
    那阵子她在写一本书。(表示她在那段时间里一直在做那件事情。)
用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。
  1. This time yesterday I ____ ______readbooks.
  2. At 9 o’clock last Sunday they ______ ______havea party.
  3. When I _____comeinto the classroom, she ________ ______reada storybook.
  4. She _____ ______playcomputer games while her mother ____ ______cookyesterday afternoon.
  5. I _____ ______havea shower when you _______callme yesterday.
 
答案:
 1. was reading           2. were having              3. came; was reading
  4. was playing; was cooking            5. was having; called
 
(四)间接引语
形成步骤:
    1)不要逗号,冒号,引号
    2)要考虑到人称的变化(人称的变化与汉语是一致的)
    3)要考虑时态的变化
    4)要考虑时间状语、地点状语和语示代词的变化。
  1. 直接引语变成间接引语时,几个主要时态的变化规律
直接引语
间接引语
一般现在时
一般过去时
一般将来时
过去将来时
现在进行时
过去进行时
  2. 直接引语变成间接引语时,一些词汇的变化规律
直接引语
   1. am / is
2. are   
           3. have / has
4. will   
5. can  
6. may
间接引语
1. was
2. were
3.  had 
4. would
5. could
6. might
 
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