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备考2009:英语易混词辨析
 2008-10-13   

英语中有许多拼写相近的单词,有的仅一个字母之差,意义却相差较远,可谓"貌"相近,意相远.因其"貌"近,难辨者众,常指鹿为马.其实这些词有很多都是同"根"生的"兄弟姐妹".本文试图把某些常用"貌"近之词依"貌"分组列出,结合构词法分析其"根",配以语句进行对比,希望能帮助英语学习者辨其"貌",知其意. 
    1. inspect, respect, expect, prospect
    "貌"同处spect,词根:看.各相异处前缀in-:里面、内,in + spect "看里面"乃为"检查";re-:反复、回,re + spect "回头反复看"是为"尊重";ex-:外面、出,ex + spect "看外面"是在"期待";pro-:前、朝前,pro + spect "朝前看"就是"展望、前景".
    (1) The customs inspectors are inspecting the outgoing baggage. 海关稽查员正在检查出关的行李.
    (2) The candidate is widely respected and expected to be elected mayor of this city. 候选人广受尊重,有望当选为该市市长.
    (3) I see little much prospect of his company. 我看他公司发展前景渺茫.
    2. expose, propose, dispose, compose, oppose, impose
    "貌"同处pos,词根 + 结尾字母e:放置.各相异处前缀ex-:外面、出,ex + pose "摆出来"是为"揭发、暴露";pro-:前、朝前,pro + pose "向前呈"引为"提出、提议";dis-:分开,dis + pose "分开放置"引为"布置、安排";com=con-:共同、一起,com + pose "放到一起"即为"组成、构成";op-:相反,op + pose "置于相反位置"引为"反抗";im=in:内、里面,im + pose "把……硬置于里面"乃"把……强加".
    (1) The leaders opposed the idea of exposing these photos to the public. 领导们反对将这些照片公之于众.
    (2) Man proposes; God disposes. 谋事在人,成事在天.
    (3) Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. 水是由氢和氧组成的.
    (4) The director always attempts to impose his idea into every decision that is made by his office staff. 这位主任总是企图把他的个人意见强加于全体工作人员的每一项决定之上.
    3. express, impress, depress, compress
"貌"同处press,词根:压.各相异处前缀ex-:外面、出,ex + press "把……压出"引为"表示、表明";im=in:内、里面,im + press "压入"乃"铭刻、给留下深刻印象";de-:向下,de + press "使压下"就是"使沮丧";com=con-:共同、一起,com + press "压在一起"即为"压缩".
    (1) Children are encouraged to express feelings of sadness which they may be holding inside. 应当鼓励孩子们把他们可能藏在心里的不愉快表达出来.
    (2) His words are strongly impressed on my memory. 他的话深深地铭刻在我心上.
    (3) News of his father’s death depressed Mr. Zhou; he felt as if a heavy weight had been placed on his spirit. 父亲去世的消息使周先生消沉,他感到心里好像压了一块重石.
    (4) Compress your composition into a shorter one within 100 words. 把你的作文缩写成100字以内的短文.
    4. contribute, distribute, attribute
    "貌"同处tribute,词根:贡品、献礼.各相异处前缀con-:共同、一起,con + tribute "贡品一起"引为"贡献、捐献";dis-:分开,dis + tribute "分贡品"就是"分发";at- 可表原因,at + tribute "表述奉献贡品之由"引为"归因于".
(1) Song Dynasty contributed three inventions to world civilization.
宋朝有三大发明对世界文明做出了贡献.
    (2) The organizing committee distributed prizes
    among the winners. 组委会把奖品分发给了获胜者.
    (3) He attributes his success to his hard work. 他认为他的成就是他刻苦的结果.
    5. constitute, substitute, institute
"貌"同处stitute,词根:站立.各相异处前缀con-:共同、一起,con + stitute "同在一起"乃为"组成、构成";sub-:下面,"使一件东西站到另一件东西之下"就是"用……代替某人或某物";in-:内、里面,"在里面站的"即为"机构、学院".
    (1) The three men were driving a stolen car from a scientific institute in which the police found a quantity of illegal drug substances; these facts constituted enough evidence for the three to be charged and brought to trial. 三名男子驾驶一辆从一家科研所偷来的汽车,警方在他们的车上发现了一批违禁毒品,这些事实足以构成对这三名男子进行控告和审判的证据.
    (2) Of course daydreaming is no substitute for hard work. 当然白日做梦绝不能代替艰苦的努力.
    6. statue, status, stature
    "貌"同处stat,词根:站立.stat + ue 雕像;stat + us 地位、身份;stat + ure 身材、身高.
    例:The artist in imposing stature enjoys high social status, for he’s made a series of classical statues.
    那位身材魁梧的艺术家因塑造了系列经典雕像而享有盛名.
7. infer, refer, prefer, confer
    "貌"同处fer,词根:拿、携带.各相异处前缀in-:内、里面,in + fer "拿内含的东西"乃"推断";re-:回,往原处,re + fer "反复拿书或资料"就是"参考、查阅";pre-:前面,pre + fer"拿在前面,先拿"肯定是"喜欢";con-:共同、一起,con + fer "在对话中共同采纳"引为"协商、商议".
    例: (1) What can you infer from this passage?
    你能从该短文中推断出什么?
    (2) When writing papers, we have to refer to a lot of references concerned.
    写论文时我们得查阅许多有关资料.
    (3) It is a good idea to ask what your guests prefer to drink before you bring in the refreshments.
    端上茶点之前最好先问一下你的客人喜欢喝什么饮料.
    (4) We need to confer with the whole committee before making this important decision.
    在做出这一重大决策之前,我们必须与全体委员交换意见.
    8. acquire, inquire, require
    该组虽不宜说是词根加词缀构成,但我们可以用同样的方式去分析,再加联想以帮助记忆."貌"同处quire:一刀纸.各相异处ac-:加强意义,使……,acquire联想"使纸中的即书中的成为自己的"那就是"获得,尤指获取知识";in-:内、里面,inquire 联想"想知道书中不懂的"就去"询问或咨询";re-:反复,require 联想"在纸条上反复写重要内容"就是"要求".
    例: (1) I have acquired the basic knowledge of writing required in high school.
    我已掌握中学阶段要求掌握的写作基础知识.
    (2) Mary inquired of me the reason for my quitting the job.
    玛丽问我辞职的原因.
9. distinct, instinct, extinct
    "貌"同处tinct,词根tin + ct:保持、容纳.各相异处前缀dis-:分开,dis + tinct "分开保持"乃"明显的、区别的";in-:内、里面,in + stinct "内在保持"是为"本能";ex-:外面、出,ex + tinct "出了容纳范围"不就是"灭绝"了吗?
    例:These animals have a distinct instinct of protecting themselves from being extinct.
    这些动物有一种明显的本能,能保护自己不灭绝.
    10. persist, insist, exist, resist, consist
    "貌"同处sist,词根:站立.各相异处前缀除per-之外,其余上文都已出现并分析过,就不再赘述.per-:始终、贯穿,per + sist"始终站立"乃"坚持";in + sist "站在内"引为"坚决主张/认为";ex + sist "站出来了"就能"生存、继续存在";re + sist "站在背面"表示"反抗";con + sist "站在一起"就是"组成".
    例:(1) You must persist in your studies even when you feel discouraged and exhausted.
    即使当感到泄气和疲劳时也须坚持你的学业.
    (2) The chairman insisted the meeting be cancelled.
    主席坚持要把会议取消.
    (3) There exists in that country a resisting force against the government which consists mainly of the unemployed.
    那个国家存在一股主要由失业者组成的反政府势力.
    11. conform, confirm
    它们可称得上是一对"貌"差无几的"双胞胎",仅一字母之差.con-:共同、一起,form:形式、形成,con + form"形式相同"是为"一致、符合";firm:坚硬、牢固,con + firm "一起坚硬"引为"确定、证实".
    例:(1) This phrase doesn’t conform to present-day usage.
    这一短语不合现代惯用法.
(2) The expected result confirmed me in my belief that I was right.
    预期的结果使我确信我是对的.
    12. contract, contact
    tract:拉、拖,con + tract"拉向一处之物,常指法律文件"即"合同、契约";tact:碰,con + tact "碰到一起"乃为"联系、接触".
    例:We’ll contact again and sign the contract as soon as possible.
    我们还会再次联系,尽快把合同签了.
    13. contend, content
    tend:伸张、奋力,con + tend"一起伸张"乃"竞争、角逐";tent:保持、容纳,con + tent"保持在一起的东西"就是"目录、容量".
    例:(1) The content of the report concerns the new building plans.
    报告的内容涉及新的建筑计划.
    (2) A good teacher can contend with several problems at the same time.
    好教师能同时应付几个难题.
    英语中这种"貌"近之词还有很多,本文只择以上几组,个别分析可能还欠科学,主要是想帮助英语学习者利用一切办法并举一反三,掌握其"貌"同处,辨清相异点,最终识得这些"双胞胎或多胞胎兄弟姐妹",并准确使用.
 
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